Tag Archives: Bangor University

Behaviour Change Insiders Mewnwelediad Newid Ymddygiad

BCI_final

This is the first of six podcasts we are piloting on the subject of behaviour change in public services.

The podcasts have been created from a series of three behaviour change festivals that we helped deliver at Bangor, Swansea and Aberystwyth Universities during 2016/17.

Our aim is to use some of what we learnt about behaviour change to share knowledge.

Most of the talking will be from people who have delivered behaviour change, are experts in the field or both.

This is a pilot of a new way of working for us. Please expect things to change as we as we go along, as well as some learning from our mistakes. If you have any feedback on the pilots please let us know in the comments section.

Thanks very much.

In episode one:

Rupert Moon – on working with rugby players at Rugby Gogledd Cymru to develop behaviours that went beyond the playing field.

 

Professor Judy Hutchings – on the KiVa anti bullying programme in schools. Learning from Finland on how taking a whole school approach can change behaviours and reduce bullying.

 

Links to resources mentioned:

Bangor University KiVa Programme: https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=KIVA+Bangor&gws_rd=cr&dcr=0&ei=t8WPWq_XN4GLgAb_8qqYDg

Rupert Moon on improving wellbeing  https://www.wao.gov.uk/events/housing-and-sport-improving-wellbeing-and-providing-better-value-public-money

Mewnwelediad Newid Ymddygiad

Dyma’r cyntaf o chwe phodlediad rydym yn eu treialu ar newid ymddygiad mewn gwasanaethau cyhoeddus.

Mae’r podlediadau wedi’u creu o gyfres o wyliau newid ymddygiad rydym wedi helpu i’w cynnal ym Mhrifysgol Bangor, Prifysgol Abertawe a Phrifysgol Aberystwyth yn ystod 2016/17.

Ein nod yw defnyddio rhywfaint o’r hyn a ddysgwyd am newid ymddygiad er mwyn rhannu gwybodaeth.

Bydd y rhan fwyaf o’r siarad gan y bobl sydd wedi cyflawni newid ymddygiad, yn arbenigwyr yn y maes, neu’r ddau.

Cynllun peilot yw hwn, nid ein ffordd arferol o weithio. Disgwyliwch i rai pethau newid ar y ffordd a byddwn hefyd yn dysgu o’n camgymeriadau. Os oes gennych unrhyw adborth ar y cynlluniau peilot, rhowch wybod i ni yn yr adran sylwadau.

Diolch yn fawr iawn.

Ym mhennod un:

Rupert Moon – yn trafod gweithio gyda chwaraewyr rygbi yn Rygbi Gogledd Cymru i ddatblygu ymddygiadau a aeth y tu hwnt i’r cae chwarae.

Yr Athro Judy Hutchings – yn trafod rhaglen gwrth-fwlio KiVa mewn ysgolion. Dysgu o’r Ffindir ar sut y gall dull gweithredu ysgol gyfan newid ymddygiadau a lleihau achosion o fwlio.

Dolenni i’r adnoddau y soniwyd amdanynt:

Rupert Moon, Gwella lles.  https://www.wao.gov.uk/cy/digwyddiadau/tai-chwaraeon-gwella-lles-darparu-gwell-gwerth-am-arian-cyhoeddus

Prifysgol Bangor KiVa Rhaglen: https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=KIVA+Bangor&gws_rd=cr&dcr=0&ei=t8WPWq_XN4GLgAb_8qqYDg

The Wellbeing of Future Generations Act and Behaviour Change

A photo of a dog being pulled on a leadBehaviour Change of both the public and public services was a recurring theme in discussions at our event on The Future of Governance: Effective decision making for current and future generations. In this post, Chris Bolton looks at the challenges ahead and how we can get to grips with them.

“The real problem isn’t creating the vision for the future, it’s leaving where we are now…”

I’m not sure who said that, it might be a combination of several things I’ve read and heard over the last few months, in which case, I’m happy to claim it.

Key to the success (and the biggest problem) of the Wellbeing of Future Generations (WFG) Act are the very carefully thought Five Ways of Working (long term; integration; collaboration; involvement; and preventative). They all describe something that most people with a disposition towards a civilised society would find hard to disagree with. They are logical, sensible and most will agree with them. Possibly the best way to start a mass movement for change, find something that everyone can agree on.

The problematic part rests with human behaviour. As I see it there are broadly two things working against the Act; The System and People.

  • The public services ‘system’ is a complex beast that will respond in unpredictable ways to the behaviours of the people operating within it.
  • The changes in behaviour required by the Act are a seismic shift for many. The current behaviours have been developed over many years and are reinforced by organisational hierarchies and professional status.

It’s a huge challenge (and topic to discuss in a 1000 words) so I’ll try and illustrate my points under three headings:

  1. Correlation is not causation (it’s complicated and complex),
  2. It’s always been about behaviour, and
  3. We need to ‘Nudge not Yank’.

Correlation is not causation

If I could wish for one behaviour change around WFG Act it would be for decision makers to recognise that not all situations are straightforward with obvious answers. A few specific situations are, but many of the challenges we face around the WFG Act are complex (diabetes, multigenerational economic inactivity etc.).

Often the type of analysis used to supports decision making falls into the trap of mistaking correlation for causation when seeking ‘quick-wins’. For example, a successful economy will have a proportion of manufacturing businesses that typically operate out of industrial units. A fact.

It does not follow however that by creating lots of ‘industry ready’ buildings, manufacturing businesses will automatically appear in those buildings and create a successful economy. My colleague, Mark Jeffs, wrote an interesting article about ‘correlation not being causation’ which is sometimes called ‘cargo cult’.

The complex challenges of the WFG Act require decision making behaviours that; recognise complexity, accept uncertainty, the willingness to test different solutions, fail, learn the lessons from failure (out in the open), learn the lessons and move on. For decision makers who are ‘driven to deliver’ and ‘meet performance targets’ this can be a significant behavioural challenge.

It’s always been about behaviour

A phrase for you to ponder on, Hyperbolic Discounting (I can say what I like now, most people will have switched off).

Basically this is a human behaviour where people have a tendency to prefer more immediate payoffs rather than things that happen later on. This is to the extent that our future selves would probably have not made that decision, given the same information. This is also referred to as current moment bias or present bias.

This behaviour hasn’t just been invented to cause problems for the first of the WFG Act Five Ways of Working, Long Term Thinking. It’s been part of the human condition for thousands of years. If you are a prehistoric hunter gather with a lifespan of 30 years, long-term thinking probably isn’t high on your list of decision making behaviours / life skills.

There is frequently a tendency to ‘blame’ the political cycle of elections for short term thinking in public services. This might however be something deeper in human behaviour, a cognitive bias towards the short term. You can learn more about Hyperbolic Discounting in the 1997 paper by David Laibson in the Quarterly Journal of Economics.

We need to ‘Nudge not Yank’

Thanks to Professor Dave Snowden from the Cynefin Centre in Bangor University for developing the thinking around this.

In essence, lots of Public Services have ‘done’ behaviour change to service users over many years. Things like programmes to reduce smoking, wearing seatbelts in cars or even 5p plastic bag charges are ‘done’ to people.

Whilst many of these behaviour change initiates have had huge success, there are a different set of issues around may of the WFG Act challenges, for example the growth in Type 2 Diabetes. The approaches need to be more subtle and based more upon understanding were people are ‘disposed to change’. If people aren’t ‘disposed to change’, any initiative to change behaviour can run into full resistance or things like malicious compliance with unintended consequences. (I’ve written about this previously).

I would argue that to achieve the sustainable behaviour changes required by the WFG Act it is better to facilitate and nudge people in areas where they are ‘disposed to change’, rather than ‘shove’ or ‘yank’ them in areas where they aren’t.

That also represents a behaviour change for many people who will be involved in the delivery of the WFG Act.

Are we doomed?

Probably not, but there are some significant behaviour changes required to successfully deliver the WFG Act and we shouldn’t underestimate what is required.

Here are my Top 3 Tips for anyone involved in decision making and governance associated with the WFG Act:

  1. Accept that lots of situations will be complex and will require a ‘probe, test, fail, learn’ type approach before deciding on a solution.
  2. Surround yourself with people who have a different point of view and different experiences, and listen to them. It might help overcome Hyperbolic Discounting and a number of other cognitive biases (have a look at my post on The Ladder of Inference) for more on this.
  3. When trying to influence behaviour change look for areas where there is a ‘disposition to change’ and nudge there rather than trying to ‘shove’ or ‘yank’ people in the direction you think is best for them.

Jargon busting

Jargon

Recently we’ve been hearing from the Wales Audit Office Communications Team about how our upcoming new and improved website will be simpler to use and also make it easier for people to find the information that they need.

Andrew Purnell, the Wales Audit Office’s Digital Communications Officer, has been educating us as a team about what an effective website looks like, and also how language plays an important part in that. It’s almost impossible to find what you’re looking for if you don’t understand the headings you’re looking under, and it’s even worse if you can’t make head nor tail of the information once you’ve got there. He explained to us how providing a website glossary means that you’ve failed at your duty to provide a clear language website, and if people don’t find the right information first time they’ll simply click away from your site.

As the public service watchdog for Wales, the Wales Audit Office has an important role to play here. It’s important that we show how important it is that information from Welsh public services is clear, because it means that people have a better understanding of the work that we all do.

Cllr Andrew Jenkins recently blogged for us ahead of the upcoming scrutiny conference, saying that ineffective communication between politicians and the electorate has led to distrust in politicians. The same things can also happen with public services, as this moving blog from Mark Neary shows.

There’s lots of information online, including guides from the Plain English campaign and its Drivel Defence tool, as well as the Cymraeg Clîr or ‘Clear Welsh’ handbook from Bangor University.

If you choose to go down this route, there’s no need to start from scratch. Monmouthshire County Council have helpfully already made their staff writing guide available online.

I had the privilege of working with the Citizen’s Panel for Social Services in Wales in my last job with Participation Cymru, where I unfortunately heard too often about how people aren’t given the information they need to help them access the right services for them. It’s important that we all make sure that people can make the most of their public services by making information both easy to find and to understand. I wonder how many public service websites truly do this?

–      Dyfrig